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[英文图书] Martin Ingrouille, Bill Eddie著Plants Diversity and Evolution [PDF]

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发表于 2017-1-8 19:18:16 | 显示全部楼层
Martin Ingrouille, Bill Eddie著Plants Diversity and Evolution [PDF]

Plants Diversity and Evolution

Plants Diversity and Evolution

Introducing students to the fundamental concepts of botany, plant science, plant ecology and plant evolutionary biology, this book uses well-defined technical terms and extensive examples. It describes the evolution of land plants and algae in relation to environmental change and examines their biochemical, physiological and morphological adaptations to differing environments. Chapters on plant cell characteristics, new classifications and the topical issue of plant exploitation are included.

Table of contents :

Cover......Page 1
Half-title......Page 3
Title......Page 5
Copyright......Page 6
Content......Page 7
Preface......Page 9
Dedication......Page 17
1.1 Living at the edge of chaos......Page 19
1.1.1 The pre-biotic Earth......Page 20
1.1.2 Complex molecules and self-organisation......Page 22
1.1.3 The RNA world......Page 24
1.1.4 How to recognise a living system......Page 25
1.2.1 Pigments......Page 27
1.2.2 Harvesting light and transferring energy......Page 30
1.2.3 Anoxygenic photosynthesis......Page 32
1.2.4 Oxygenic photosynthesis......Page 33
1.2.5 Carbon fixation......Page 35
1.2.6 The cyanobacteria and Prochlorophytes......Page 36
1.3.1 Cell membranes and cell walls......Page 37
1.3.2 The domains of life......Page 39
1.3.3 The nucleus, the cytoskeleton and cell division......Page 40
1.3.4 Organelles......Page 41
Endosymbiosis......Page 42
The origin of chloroplasts......Page 43
Centrioles and flagella......Page 44
1.3.5 Reproduction......Page 45
Sex......Page 46
Life cycles......Page 49
1.3.6 Photosynthetic eukaryotes......Page 52
1.4 Pattern: multicellularity in the algae......Page 56
1.4.1 Coenocytic or siphonous forms......Page 57
1.4.2 Colonial forms......Page 58
1.4.3 Filamentous forms......Page 59
1.4.5 Inter-cellular connections and the differentiated body......Page 61
1.4.6 The brown algae......Page 62
1.4.7 Green algae (Chlorophyta)......Page 64
1.5 What is a plant?......Page 66
1.5.1 How do plants differ from other living organisms?......Page 68
1.5.2 The challenge of the land......Page 69
1.5.4 The first plants......Page 71
1.6 Sub-aerial transmigration of plants......Page 72
Further reading for Chapter 1......Page 73
2.1 Plant development......Page 74
2.1.1 Plant cells and tissues......Page 75
2.1.3 Parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma......Page 76
2.2 Plant growth and differentiation......Page 78
2.2.1 Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and shoot systems......Page 80
2.2.2 Differentiation in leaves......Page 84
2.2.3 Branching......Page 85
2.2.4 Root apical meristems (RAMs) and root systems......Page 87
2.2.5 Secondary thickening......Page 90
2.2.6 The bark......Page 92
2.3 The integration of developmental processes......Page 93
2.3.1 Growth factors......Page 95
2.3.2 Inter-cell communication......Page 97
2.3.3 Electrical signalling in plants......Page 98
2.4.1 Polarity of organisation......Page 99
2.4.3 Meristemoids and local polarity in leaves......Page 101
2.4.4 The formation of cellular patterns......Page 104
2.5 The epigenetics of plant development......Page 105
2.5.2 Identity genes and floral development......Page 107
2.5.3 The evolution of identity genes......Page 110
2.6 The theory of morphospace......Page 112
Further reading for Chapter 2......Page 113
3.1.1 The plant in its world: macrocosm and microcosm......Page 115
3.1.2 Responding to the environment......Page 116
3.1.3 Responding to the environment......Page 118
3.1.4 Physiological responses......Page 120
3.2 The nature of evolutionary processes......Page 122
3.2.2 The integration and harmonisation of plant form......Page 123
3.2.3 The dance through morphospace......Page 125
3.3 Order, transformation and emergence......Page 126
3.3.1 The developmental sequence......Page 128
3.4 Macromutation and evolutionary novelty......Page 130
3.4.1 Growth forms in the Gesneriaceae......Page 131
3.5 Unity and diversity; constraint and relaxation......Page 133
3.6.1 Developmental reaction norms......Page 134
3.6.3 Evolution of the plastic phenotype......Page 135
3.6.4 Adaptive landscapes......Page 137
3.7 Variation and isolation......Page 138
3.7.1 Naming diversity......Page 139
3.8.2 The classical shoot model......Page 141
3.8.3 Leaf form......Page 142
3.8.4 Phyllotaxis......Page 145
3.8.5 The architecture of plants......Page 147
3.8.7 The whole plant......Page 149
Further reading for Chapter 3......Page 151
4.1 The yin and yang of reproduction......Page 153
4.2.1 Sex organs and cells......Page 154
4.2.2 Sexy plants and tissues – the gametophyte......Page 156
4.3 Dispersal......Page 158
4.3.1 Spores, elaters and sporangia......Page 159
Capsules in bryophytes......Page 160
Pollen, microsporangia and stamens......Page 161
Heterothally......Page 162
Heterospory......Page 163
Endosporic development......Page 164
4.3.3 Ovules and seeds......Page 165
4.3.4 Carpels, pistils and fruits......Page 167
4.4.1 Sexual development......Page 168
4.4.2 Pollination......Page 171
4.4.3 Fertilisation and embryogenesis......Page 173
4.4.4 Reproductive strategies......Page 175
4.4.5 Germination and seedling growth......Page 176
4.4.6 Vegetative spread......Page 177
Spore and pollen release......Page 179
Bouyancy......Page 181
Deposition and entrapment......Page 182
4.5.2 Water dispersal......Page 183
Aquatic pollination......Page 184
POLLOEN AND sPORES......Page 186
OVULES OR SEEDS......Page 187
NECTAR......Page 189
FRUITS......Page 191
4.6.1 Flower scents......Page 192
4.6.2 Flower colour and texture......Page 193
4.6.3 Flower symmetry......Page 195
4.6.4 Flower architecture......Page 196
4.6.5 Flower pollination syndromes......Page 199
4.6.6 Breeding systems......Page 204
Further reading for Chapter 4......Page 208
5.1.1 The paths of diversity......Page 209
5.1.2 The archetypes of plants......Page 210
5.1.3 The taxonomic hierarchy......Page 211
5.1.5 The main groups of plants......Page 213
SUBCLASS METZGERIIDAE (SIMPLE THALLOID LIVERWORTS)......Page 215
SUBCLASS MARCHANTIIDAE (COMPLEX THALLOID LIVERWORTS)......Page 216
Order Anthocerotales......Page 217
Class Sphagnopsida (peat or bog mosses)......Page 218
SUBCLASS POLYTRICHIDAE (HAIR-CAP MOSSES)......Page 219
SUBCLASS BRYIDAE (ARTHRODONTOUS MOSSES)......Page 220
5.2.4 Vascular land plants – division Tracheophyta......Page 221
Class Lycopsida – clubmosses......Page 222
Class Selaginellopsida (Selaginella)......Page 223
Class Isoetopsida, Isoetes – Quillworts......Page 224
Class Psilotopsida – whiskferns......Page 225
Class Marattiopsida – Eusporangiate or primitive ferns......Page 226
Class Equisetopsida, Equisetum – Horsetails......Page 227
HYMENOPHYLLALES, THE FILMY FERNS......Page 228
GLEICHENEALES, THE THICKET FERNS......Page 229
MARSILEALES AND SALVINEALES, THE HETEROSPOROUS AQUATIC FERNS......Page 230
CYATHEALES, THE TREE-FERNS......Page 231
POLYPODIALES, THE POLYPODIACEOUS FERNS......Page 232
5.2.10 Class Pinopsida – the gymnosperms......Page 233
5.2.12 Subclass Cycadidae – Cycads......Page 235
5.2.13 Subclass Pinidae – Conifers......Page 236
PINALES (PINES AND FIRS)......Page 237
PODOCARPALES (PODOCARPS)......Page 238
TAXALES, YEWS AND CALIFORNIA NUTMEG......Page 239
5.2.14 Gnetidae, the gnetophytes......Page 240
5.3.2 Fossil record and origin......Page 241
5.3.3 The evolutionary radiation of flowering plants......Page 242
5.3.4 The phylogeny of flowering plants......Page 244
AMBORELLALES......Page 245
SCHISANDRALES (INCLUDING ILLICIALES AND AUSTROBAILEYALES)......Page 246
CANELLALES......Page 247
ACORUS (SWEET-FLAG OR CALAMUS)......Page 248
PANDANALES (SCREW PINES)......Page 249
ASPARAGALES (AMARYLLIS, IRISES AND ORCHIDS)......Page 250
POALES (GRASSES, SEDGES AND RUSHES)......Page 252
ZINGIBERALES (GINGERS)......Page 254
PROTEALES (PROTEAS, BANKSIA AND GREVILLEAS)......Page 255
CARYOPHYLLALES (CATCHFLIES, STONECROPS AND CACTI)......Page 256
BERBERIDOPSIDALES......Page 257
GERANIALES (GERANIUMS)......Page 258
OXALIDALES (BERMUDA BUTTERCUP AND WOOD SORREL)......Page 259
FABALES (LEGUMES)......Page 260
FAGALES (OAKS AND BEECHES)......Page 261
SAPINDALES (MAHOGANIES)......Page 262
ERICALES (HEATHERS)......Page 263
GENTIANALES (GENTIANS AND BEDSTRAWS)......Page 264
LAMIALES (DEAD-NETTLES AND GESNERS)......Page 265
DIPSACALES (TEASELS AND HONEY-SUCKLES)......Page 266
ASTERALES (DAISIES, LOBELIAS AND BELLFLOWERS)......Page 267
Further reading for Chapter 5......Page 269
6.1.1 The kinds of plants......Page 270
6.2 Aquatic and wetland plants......Page 272
6.2.1 General adaptations of aquatic plants......Page 274
6.3.1 General features of halophytes......Page 278
6.3.2 Salt exclusion mechanisms......Page 280
6.3.3 Osmoregulators and osmoconformers......Page 281
6.3.4 Mangroves......Page 284
6.3.5 Salt-marshes and mudflats......Page 286
6.4 Plants of low-nutrient conditions......Page 287
6.4.1 Mycorrhizal associations......Page 288
6.4.2 Nitrogen-fixing symbionts......Page 289
6.4.3 Mycotrophic (saprophytes) and mycorrhizal plants......Page 291
6.4.4 Parasitic plants......Page 293
6.4.5 Mistletoes…hemi-parasites of the canopy......Page 296
6.4.6 Carnivorous plants......Page 297
6.5 Plants of moist shady habitats (sciophytes)......Page 300
6.5.1 The quality of light......Page 302
6.5.2 The leaves of shade plants......Page 303
6.6 Epiphytes, hemi-epiphytes and vines......Page 304
6.6.1 The herbaceous vines and woody climbers......Page 306
6.6.4 Adaptations of epiphytes......Page 308
6.7.1 Grasses......Page 313
6.7.2 Adaptations of grassland and savanna plants......Page 316
6.8 Plants of cold or hot arid habitats......Page 317
6.8.1 Desert plants......Page 319
6.8.2 Arctic and alpine plants......Page 321
6.8.3 Tropicalpine plants......Page 324
6.9 Island floras......Page 326
6.9.1 The composition of floras on different islands......Page 327
6.9.2 Relict floras and extreme disjunction......Page 330
6.9.3 Adaptive radiation......Page 331
6.9.4 Characteristics of island plants......Page 332
Further reading for Chapter 6......Page 334
7.1 Exploiting plants......Page 335
7.2.1 Cereal plants......Page 339
7.2.2 Pulses......Page 343
7.2.3 Oilseed crops......Page 344
7.2.4 Root crops......Page 345
7.2.5 Vegetables......Page 346
7.2.6 Fruits and nuts......Page 347
7.2.7 Sugar crops......Page 349
7.3.1 Timber......Page 350
Fibres from stems......Page 352
Fibres from seeds......Page 353
Turpentines, gums, industrial chemicals......Page 354
7.3.4 Fuel......Page 355
7.4.1 Herbs and spices......Page 356
7.3.2 Drugs as medicines and remedies......Page 360
7.4.3 Beverages......Page 365
7.4.4 Alcohols from plants......Page 367
7.4.5 Smokes, snuff and chews......Page 370
7.5 The scientific improvement of plants......Page 374
7.5.2 Crop plants and disease......Page 375
7.5.3 GM (genetically manipulated) crops......Page 377
7.6.1 Symbolic flowers......Page 379
7.6.2 The plant collectors......Page 381
7.6.3 Plantscapes......Page 383
7.6.4 Future plantscapes......Page 386
7.6.5 Threatened plant species and vegetation......Page 387
Further reading for Chapter 7......Page 388
8.1 The emergence of scientific botany......Page 389
8.1.1 The legacy of the Ancient Greeks......Page 390
8.1.2 Botany in China......Page 394
8.1.3 Botany in the Renaissance......Page 395
8.1.4 Botany in the seventeenth century......Page 397
8.1.5 Botany in the Age of Enlightenment......Page 399
8.1.6 Botany in the Age of Romanticism......Page 403
8.2.1 From Revolution to evolution......Page 406
8.2.2 Darwin and Wallace as botanists......Page 410
8.2.3 The plant geography of Darwin and Wallace......Page 411
8.2.4 The beginnings of ecology......Page 413
8.2.5 Adaptation and the theory natural selection......Page 414
8.2.6 Historical contingency versus rational morphology......Page 416
8.2.7 Classification and evolutionary theory......Page 419
8.3.1 Variation and the transformation of form......Page 421
8.3.2 Gregor Mendel and the rise of genetics......Page 423
8.3.3 Genetics and Neo-Darwinism......Page 424
8.3.4 The ‘modern synthesis’ – new orthodoxy......Page 425
8.3.5 Speciation......Page 426
8.3.6 Plant ecology......Page 428
8.3.7 Voices of dissent......Page 429
8.3.8 The natural philosophy of plant form......Page 431
8.3.9 The pursuit of objectivity......Page 433
8.3.10 The triumph of molecular systematics......Page 435
8.4 The green future......Page 437
Further reading for Chapter 8......Page 442
Index......Page 444

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